Marbury v. Madison (1803)Established judicial review;“judges;”John Marshall;power of the Supreme Court.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)Established national supremacy;established implied powers;use of elastic clause;state unable to tax fed. Institution;John Marshall;“the power to tax involves the power todestroy.”
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)Established separate but equal.
Schenck V. U.S. (1919)Oliver WendellHolmes;clear and present dangertest;shouting “fire” in a crowdedtheater;limits on speech, esp. inwartime.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights(applying them to the states);statescannot deny freedom of speech -–protected through due process clause of Amendment14
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)Provided test for determining which parts of Bill ofRights should be federalized – those which are implicitly or explicitlynecessary for liberty to exist.
Brown v. Board, 1st (1954)School segregationunconstitutional; segregation psychologically damaging to blacks;overturned separate but equal;use of 14th Amendment;judicial activism of Warren Court;unanimous decision.
Brown v. Board, 2nd (1955)Ordered schools to desegregate“with all due and deliberate speed.”
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)Establishedexclusionary rule;illegally obtainedevidence cannot be used in court;Warren Court’sjudicial activism
Engel v. Vitale (1962)Prohibitedstate-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of Amendment One’sestablishment clause and the 14th Amendment’s due processclause;Warren Court’s judicialactivism.
Baker v. Carr (1962)“One man, onevote.”Ordered state legislativedistricts to be as near equal as possible in population;Warren Court’s political judicial activism.
Abbington v. Schempp (1963)Prohibited devotional Bible reading inpublic schools by virtue of establishment clause and due process clause.Warren Court’s judicial activism.
Gideon v. Wainright (1963)Ordered states to provide lawyersfor those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings.Warren Court’s judicial activism in criminal rights.
Wesberry v. Sanders (1963)Ordered House districts to be asnear equal in population as possible.
Griswald v. Connecticut (1965)Established right of privacy through 4th and 9thAmendments.Set a precedent for Roe v.Wade.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)Established Miranda warnings of counsel andsilence.Must be given beforequestioning.Warren Court’s judicial activism incriminal rights.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)Allowed states to providetextbooks and busing to students attending private religious schools.Established 3-part test to determine ifestablishment clause is violated:nonsecularpurpose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government.
Roe v. Wade (1973)Established national abortion guidelines;trimester guidelines:no stateinterference in 1st, state may regulate to protect health of motherin 2nd, state may regulate to protect health of unborn child in 3rd.Inferred from right of privacy estab. in Griswald v. Conn.
U.S. v. Nixon (1974)Allowedfor executive privilege, but not in criminal cases;“Even the President is not above thelaw;”Watergate.
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)1st Amendmentprotects campaign spending;legislatures can limit contributions, but not how much one spends of his own money oncampaigns.
U.C. Regents v. Bakke (1978)Alan Bakke and UC Davis MedicalSchool; strict quotas unconst., but states may allow race to be taken intoaccount as ONE factor in admissions decisions.Bakke admitted.
Webster v. Reproductive
Health Services (1987)More leeway for states inregulating abortion, though no overturning of Roe v. Wade.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)Struckdown Texaslaw that banned flag burning, which is a protected form of symbolic speech.
Employment Division of OregonStatescould deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for
v. Smith (1990)violatinga state prohibition on the use of peyote even though the use of the drug waspart of a religious ritual.
Planned Parenthood v.
Casey (1992)States can regulate abortion,but not with regulations that impose “undue burden” upon women; did notoverturn Roe v. Wade, but gave states more leeway in regulating abortion (e.g.,24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors)
Shaw v. Reno (1993)Noracial gerrymandering; race cannot be the soleor predominant factor in redrawinglegislative boundaries;majority-minority districts.
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)GunFree School Zones Act exceeded Congress’ authority to regulate interstatecommerce.
Clinton v. NY (1998)Bannedpresidential use of line item veto
Bush v. Gore (2000)Use of 14thAmendment’s equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of2000.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (02)Public money can be used to senddisadvantaged children to religious schools in tuition voucher programs.
Ashcroft v. ACLU (2002)Struck down a federal ban on“virtual” child pornography
Lawrence v. Texas(2003)Using right ofprivacy, struck down Texaslaw banning sodomy.
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)Struck down use of “bonuspoints” for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan.
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)Allowed the use of race as ageneral factor in law school admissions at University of Michigan.
Kelo v. City of New London (’05)Eminent domain case:Local governments may force the sale of private property and make wayfor private economic development when officials decide it would benefitthe public.
Gonzales v. Carhart (2007)Upheld Partial Birth Abortion BanAct of 2003.
DCv. Heller (2008)Struckdown a Washington DC ordinance that banned handguns
Home to 513 practice multiple-choice questions organized by topic and difficulty. Site also has links to other AP classes. A fairly new site. If you register, you will be listed on their homepage if you have answered the most questions. As of March 18, 2014, the top score is 542 questions answered. JHS AP US Government students can destroy that mark in one week.