• sunlight
     
    Created by Darlene Howald and Bob Hutchison
     
     
     
    airplane
     

    Description

    This unit introduces the relationship between light, an object, and the formation of shadows. Children observe the apparent movement of the Sun and the associated changes in shadows.

    Grade Level(s): Grade 2 Grade 5

    Subject Area(s): Science

     

    Curriculum Standards

    Observe and describe how the Sun, Moon and stars all appear to move slowly across the sky.

    Describe how night and day are caused by Earth's rotation.

    Explain that Earth is one of several planets to orbit the Sun, and that the Moon orbits Earth.

    Describe the characteristics of Earth and its orbit about the Sun (e.g., three fourths of Earth's surface covered by a layer of water [some of it frozen], the entire planet surrounded by a thin blanket of air, elliptical orbit, tilted axis, spherical planet).

    Observe and describe that some weather changes occur throughout the day and some changes occur in a repeating seasonal pattern.

    Demonstrate that in science it is helpful to work with a team and share findings with others.

    Use whole numbers to order, count, identify, measure and describe things and experiences.

    Use appropriate tools and simple equipment/instruments to safely gather scientific data (e.g., magnifiers, non-breakable thermometers, timers, rulers, balances, calculators and other appropriate tools).

    Use evidence to develop explanations of scientific investigations. (What do you think? How do you know?)

    Recognize that explanations are generated in response to observations, events and phenomena.


    Detailed Plan

    INTRODUCTION:

    This unit introduces the relationship between light, an object and the formation of shadows. Children observe the apparent movement of the Sun and the associated changes in shadows.

    OBJECTIVES:

    Students will do the following while using Northwood's Outdoor Learning Lab:

    1. Define shadows, rotation, and axis,
    2. Observe the length of a shadow at different times of the day,
    3. Observe the position of a shadow at different times of the day,
    4. Measure the length of a shadow at different times of the day,
    5. Measure the angle of a shadow at different times of the day,
    6. Explain why the position of a shadow changes as the day progresses,
    7. Explain why the length of a shadow changes as the year progresses,
    8. Collect data using spreadsheets,
    9. Collect data using digital camera,
    10. Graph data collected.

    ANTICIPATORY SET:

    -What is the definition of a shadow?
    -What factors effect the length, position, and brightness of a shadow?
    -Take short pre-test found in "Files" section.

    PROCEDURES:

    Day 1

    1. Model "Shadow and Light" activity found in "links" section using HP PC-Tablet and HP Projector.
    2. Students experiment with the effects of length, position, and brightness of shadows using "Shadow and Light" activity on individual computers.
    3. Complete Activity Sheet #1.

    Day 2 (Fall)

    1. Students will be divided into groups with 4 team members in each. These teams will work together throughout the year.
    2. Each team member will be given a specific responsibility:
    **Facilitator will follow direct activities using instructions provided on-line from PC-Tablet.
    **Data Collector will measure angle and length of shadow at 10:00am
    **Photographer will document results by taking a digital picture of shadow with meter stick and protractor showing measurements.
    **Recorder will document date and results on electronic spreadsheet.
    3. Students will perform "jobs" at six pre-determined locations at Northwood's Outdoor Learning Lab.

    Day 3 (Winter)

    1. Predict how recorded Fall results will differ from data collected today.
    2. Record predictions on Activity Sheet #2.
    3. Teams members will repeat "jobs" at same six pre-determined locations at Northwood's Outdoor Learning Lab.

    Day 4 (Spring)

    1. Predict how recorded Winter results will differ from data collected today.
    2. Record predictions on Activity Sheet #3.
    3. Teams members will repeat "jobs" at same six pre-determined locations at Northwood's Outdoor Learning Lab.

    Day 5

    1. Create a graph for each set of data collected throughout the year.
    2. Analyse how the information collected changed from season to season.
    3. Review information discovered during this project.

    Day 6

    1. Complete post-project assessment found in "Files" section.

     

    Files

    Activity Sheets

    Activity Sheet #1
    Activity_Sheet_1.doc
    Draw shadow based on Sun's location.

     

    Activity Sheet 2
    Activity_Sheet_2.doc

     

    Activity Sheet 3
    Activity_Sheet_3.doc

     

    Activity Sheet 4
    Activity_Sheet_4.doc

    Completed Data Sheet

    Completed Data Sheet
    Data_Collection_Sheet_02_15_06_1130am.xls

    Data Collection Sheets

    Data Collection Sheet
    Data_Collection_Sheet.xls

    Lesson Evaluation

    Lesson Evaluation Form
    STROLL_Teacher_Evaluation_Form.doc

    Lessons

    Data Collection
    Website_2_and_5_How_to_Collect_Data.ppt
    How to collect data on sunlight and shadows.

     

    Lesson Introduction
    Website_2_and_5_Lesson_Introduction.ppt
    Introduction to sunlight, shadows, and seasonal changes.

    Movies

    Shadows and Light
    Science_Facts_and_Fun__What_s_In_A_Shadow_.asf

    Music

    Hear Comes the Sun
    05_-_Here_Comes_The_Sun.mp3

     

    Revolution
    Revolution_Music.mp3

     

    Turn Turn Music
    Turn_Turn_Music.wma

    Shadow Videos

    Sadows and Directions
    Shadows_and_Directions.asf

     

    Shadow Length
    Shadows_in_Different_Seasons.asf

     

    What is a Shadow?
    Introduction_to_What_s_In_a_Shadow.asf

    Stroll Lesson Files

    Grades 2 and 5 Outdoor Learning Lab Lesson
    How_to_Collect_Data_grades_2_and_5.ppt

    Stroll Videos

    Conclusion
    conclusion.wmv

     

    How to measure
    How_to_measure.wmv

     

    How to measure with a meter stick
    measuring_with_a_meter_stick_0001.wmv

     

    Knowing your directions
    Directions.wmv

     

    Making Observations
    Observations.wmv

     

    Making Predictions
    predictions.wmv

     

    Predictions for next time
    predictions_for_next_time.wmv

    Tests

    2nd Grade Postest
    HP_2nd_grade_postest[1].doc

     

    2nd Grade Pretest
    HP_2nd_grade_pretest[1].doc

     

    Links

    Earth Science

    Sunlight and Shadows
    Children will discover how a shadow changes when the properties (brightness, position, distance) of a light source are changed.

     

    Evaluation

    Students complete appropriate end of unit assessment found in "Files" section.

    Accuracy of student predictions on activity sheets.

    Observations while students collect data.

     

    Needed Resources

    -Northwood's Outdoor Learning Lab
    -HP PC-Tablet
    -HP Digital Camera
    -Meter sticks
    -Protractor
    -Wireless Technology
    -Online Activity from Science Clips Website: Light and Shadows
    -Attached Forms

     

    Accommodations

    Powerpoint presentation with audio and video will help "level the playing field" for visual learners and those with reading challenges.

     

    Interdisciplinary Connections

    SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUMN STANDARDS:

    Demonstrate skills and explain the benefits of cooperation when working in group settings:
    a. manage conflict peacefully,
    b. display courtesy,
    c. respect others.

    Demonstrate self-direction in tasks within the school community.

    Predict the next event in a sequence.

    Communicate research findings using line graphs and tables.

    Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which includes gathering information.

    MATH CURRICULUMN STANDARDS:

    Identify and select appropriate units of measure for length: centimeters, meters, inches, feet or yards.

    Pose questions, use observations, interviews and surveys to collect data, and organize data in charts, picture graphs and bar graphs.

    Read, interpret and make comparisons and predictions from data represented in charts, line plots, picture graphs and bar graphs.

    Write a few sentences to describe and compare categories of data represented in a chart or graph, and make statements about the data as a whole.

    Use physical models and pictures to represent possible arrangements of 2 or 3 objects.

    Identify and select appropriate units to measure angles; i.e., degrees.

    Use benchmark angles (e.g.; 45�, 90�, 120�) to estimate the measure of angles, and use a tool to measure and draw angles.

    Select and use a graph that is appropriate for the type of data to be displayed; e.g., numerical vs. categorical data, discrete vs. continuous data.

    Compare what should happen (theoretical/expected results) with what did happen (experimental/actual results) in a simple experiment.

    Make predictions based on experimental and theoretical probabilities.

    Vocabulary

    Axis- A straight line about which a body or a geometric figure rotates.

    Celestial Body- A planet.

    Orbit- The path of a celestial body or an artificial satellite as it revolves around another body.

    Equator- The imaginary line around the middle of the Earth that divides it into two equal parts perpendicular to the axis of the earth.

    Revolution- The action by a celestial body of going round in an orbit.

    Rotation- One complete turn of a celestial body on an axis.

    Shadow- Partial darkness due to the obstruction of light rays.

     

    Credits and References

    BBC home at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/

    Smithsonian Institution
    Site designed by Tania Ruiz at:
    http://hea-www.harvard.edu/ECT/the_book/index.html