I will present 3 or more reasons, citing textual evidence, that answer the essential question, how do both the Physical Geography and the Human Geography contribute to the areas of Europe and Russia, and close with how it relates to today.

                First, both Europe and Russia are divided by mountains. As stated in Chapter 2 of the text, “Several mountain ranges cross Europe. The Alps form a major barrier between central and southern Europe. The Pyrenees separate France and Spain. The Apennines run through Italy.” Later, the text states, “Western Russia extends to the Ural Mountains in the east and the Caucasus Mountains in the south.” These quotes show that both Europe and Russia are divided into regions and nations by mountains. One possible reason for the division of nations is that before modern technology, it was extremely difficult to cross mountain ranges. Since people didn’t want to do that, they just stayed where they were, and countries developed. Since mountains also have a large effect on climate, and since they are such large physical barriers, regions based on climate also are often divided by mountain ranges.

                Second, Europe and Russia have rich histories due to the variety of cultures that used to and still live in those areas. As stated in Section 6 of the text, “Europeans and Russians are linked by history. For thousands of years, peoples and armies have moved back and forth across this region. Ideas and ways of life have moved with them.” This shows that Europe and Russia have not just cultivated their massive range of cultures, but have also mixed to create new cultures and countries. As power struggles and the ever-present push for new technology to support those in power continued, Europe and Russia were scarred by wars and ruled by empires that brought all kinds of people together. One example of this is the Roman Empire, which controlled not just much of southern Europe but much of the Middle East and Africa as well, bringing together cultures that had had no interaction with each other.

                Third, Europe and Russia both have large economies. As stated in Section 8 of the text, “Global trade has made Europe and Russia one of the world’s richest regions.” This shows that both the European and Russian economies have begun to thrive because their products have been transported all over the world. This is likely contributed to by the fact that both of these countries have tons of natural resources, which they can quite easily harness and export. This is probably helped further by a large number of farms in both of these regions.

                All in all, the physical and human geographies of Europe and Russian contribute significantly to the region. Borders are created by large landforms, such as mountain ranges. The human geography of the region can generate tourism through the culture of the region. Meanwhile, the economies are hugely supported by mother nature’s natural resources. This connects to today because it is all happening right now! Well, maybe not, because of the coronavirus shutdown, but in normal times, we would still be manufacturing products, we would still be touring the world, and we would still be researching and learning about the history of the world.